Doohan and Mansell received the awards during the annual FIA Formula 2 and Formula 3 prize giving ceremony in Monaco.
Doohan finished third in the 2023 F2 championship following a strong second-half comeback after car issues blighted his early rounds.
He went on to thrice claim victory, all in Feature races, including what was his final start in the F1 feeder class.
It was the 20-year-old's performance at Spa-Francorchamps which earned him accolades.
For that, Doohan received the inaugural Formula 2 Best Performance Award, an award he shared with Richard Verschoor.
Having started 11th in Spa, the Aussie rose through the field in the early laps before a well-timed Safety Car saw him emerge second to Theo Pourchaire.
With a tyre advantage in the final laps, Doohan stormed by the Frenchman to take victory and fastest lap as he climbed to fourth in the F2 standings.
“It was a really special day for me,” he said.
“We had quite bad luck in qualifying, it was a hectic session with the rain as I was starting the lap.
“To come through and to get the win from P11, I had a bit of luck with the strategy but I think that was where we were meant to be anyway.”
Verschoor received the gong for his inspiring performance at the Red Bull Ring.
His victory in Sunday's Feature race came the day after countryman Dilano van ‘t Hoff had lost his life in a crash at Spa-Francorchamps, the win dedicated to the memory of the 18-year-old.
In Formula 3, Mansell picked up the Best Comeback of the Year following his exploits in the Feature race in Belgium.
The Australian stormed his way forward from 23rd to second at the chequered flag – briefly mounting a challenge for the race win.
“The night just got a lot better!” Mansell said.
“It was mental and watching the video back, all the emotions come back as well.
“It was such a crazy race and after such a terrible qualifying, to comeback and have that sort of result was so, so cool.”
Mansell has not yet announced his plans but is expected to graduate to Formula 2 next year.
The Novacastrian was in action in the F2 post-season test for Trident, ending the final day sixth fastest.